How to write a research paper: the main steps of writing, the types and structure of work

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The main types of research paper

Research paper can be of two types:

  • Abstract;
  • research.

The abstract is a study on a narrow topic, with the involvement of several published scientific papers. The abstract implies the analysis of different points of view on the research topic contained in these scientific papers and, as a final result, the development of one’s own point of view on the problem.

Research work is a research on a narrow topic, involving not only scientific literature, but also documentary sources, both published and not published. Research work involves the introduction into circulation of any new documents, facts, theories, proven facts, etc.

Both types of research are valuable, but research work undoubtedly has more weight.

The importance of choosing the right topic of paper

The choice of research paper: choosing the topic of research, it is necessary to proceed from its relevance, take into account the availability of sources and literature.

The wording of the topic should be specific. It is recommended to avoid those that cover a wide time period, for example, “The History of the Theaters of Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad, Volgograd,” since within one work it is unlikely that it will be possible to sufficiently cover all available material.

The topic should reflect the content of the work, be logically related to the purpose of the study.

The structure of research work (research paper).

Research work consists of:

  • plan (content),
  • Introduction,
  • study text (divided into parts, chapters, paragraphs at the author’s request),
  • Conclusions,
  • list of sources,
  • list of literature,
  • Applications.

The main elements of work`s structure

1. Introduction.

In the introduction, the author justifies the chosen topic, briefly explains what is his scientific interest.

The introduction should formulate the purpose and objectives of the study, substantiate the relevance of the topic chosen by the author, determine the chronological scope of the study, provide a brief overview of existing sources and literature on this issue, it is stipulated on the basis of which sources this study is written.

2. Text of the study.

The text of the research should correspond to the topic stated by the author and not to go beyond the chronological framework stipulated in the introduction. We should not give the well-known facts in the study. For example, describing the activities of doctors during the Battle of Stalingrad, you do not need to tell the story of the Great Patriotic War from its inception. The abundance of known facts can obscure the new thing that you managed to discover during the research. It is on new, interesting facts that it is necessary to focus attention.

To write better scientific language strictly and neutrally, without unnecessary emotions and ornaments.

In research work, the scientific text is constructed as a chain of reasonings designed to prove this or that position of work. The text should be built logically. The text of the research work should not be frank plagiarism.

The material presented in the work must be reliable.

Avoid long, intricate phrases.

Never write your work in solid text. Divide it into paragraphs and chapters.

The scope of the research should not exceed 15 pages of standard printed text.

3. Conclusion. In conclusion, conclusions are drawn on the study. Conclusions should follow from the purpose and objectives of the study, which you defined in the introduction. You have to determine whether it was possible or not to achieve the goal.

4. Lists of sources and literature.

Lists should contain all the sources and books that you used when researching in alphabetical order, indicating the output data.


Applications should be carefully selected and illustrate the most vivid moments of work. In the application it is recommended to include copies of rare photographs, documents, various tables, graphics, drawings, but these applications should be related to the text of the study. Requests for references to applications in the text of the study.